Religions are built on many philosophies. One philosophy that religions try to address is the way things spiritually relate to one another.

Heathenry is pluralistic. It believes things contain multitudes, are built on numerous principles, and contain different, multiple, or even shifting truths. This stands in contrast with dualism (two principles) and monism (one principle).

Christianity and Wicca are examples of dualist religions. In Christianity, things are categorized as either “good” or “evil” and this relation is the source of constant conflict in the world. Wicca views things as having opposites, such as the “divine masculine” and “divine feminine,” and that this duality should be honored.

Pantheism is an example of a monist belief. It believes everything is an expression of one thing—the Universe. The New Age concept of “Source” is similar, in that the essence of all things comes from one vital energy or spiritual origin.

Because Heathenry is pluralist, it doesn’t view people, entities, or forces as “good” or “evil,” nor does it believe there’s one principle force behind everything. Dualist and monist concepts may enter Heathenry from time to time, but it causes problems when they’re used for doctrines or attitudes unsupported by pluralism.